Allocation of resources for risk management activities by business organisations in developing countries: Evidence from Zambia
Keywords:Risk management, Risk Resource Allocation, Zambia, Developing Countries
This study evaluates resources allocated for risk management by business organisations (financial and non-financial firms) in developing countries, using Zambia as a case study. Primary data collected from 158 organisations were analysed using MegaStat. The findings revealed that the majority (54.5%) of organisations, especially non-financial institutions, only commit resources to risk mitigation on an Adhoc or post-event basis, while 45.5% showed a budgeted approach. A significant part of the budgeted 45.5% was used for risk management activities, and 54.5% was used for regular daily operations. Despite this variation, all organisations engaged reported a significant expenditure on risk management, at least on Adhoc. At 4 degrees of freedom (df), which was one less than the total number of possible outcomes, a non-parametric test for significance yielded a scientific P-value of 1.57e-0.7, (a numerical magnitude of 0.0014, P< 0.05). This suggests that the correlation and pattern of the findings were not random or by chance, but they carried a statistical significance. The study's main findings demonstrate that some business organisations in Zambia and other developing countries incur significant expenditure with a higher portion of their budgets to respond to risk management needs. Business organisations which do not have formal risk structures do so informally due to pressure from emerging business risks. The findings also indicated that financial institutions in developing countries allocate more resources towards risk management than non-financial institutions. The Phi coefficient (degree of association) was 0.486, showing a moderately significant relationship between the variables (risk management and resource allocation). Business organisations in Zambia and other developing nations must develop sound risk mitigation plans and allocate resources for risk management.
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